The comma (,) is one of the most widely used punctuation marks in the English language. The comma is frequently misused as well, especially because it can be found in so many different situations. Here, we will provide examples and explanations of some of the common ways that a comma is used.
Separating items in a list
Delineating the items in a list may be the most famous use of commas and also one of the most straightforward. Remember that a comma is required to separate all items of a list except the last two. The final comma (sometimes called a serial comma or Oxford comma) is optional: "A, B and C" and "A, B, and C" are both correct.
Delineating nonrestrictive elements in a sentence
Nonrestrictive elements can be omitted without changing the meaning of a sentence, and they are set off from the rest of the sentence with commas. Nonrestrictive elements often begin with the word 'which.' Consider the following example:
- Uruguay, which won the first FIFA world cup, will play Venezuela later this year.
The historical fact about Uruguay is not essential to understand the rest of the sentence, so it is set apart with commas.
Appositives are nouns or phrases that provide an alternate name or identity for another noun. When appositives are nonrestrictive, they also require commas:
This nonrestrictive appositive provides additional information that is not critical to the understanding of the sentence, so it should be offset with commas.
Separating independent clauses (along with a conjunction)
- Three lions wandered past our tent, but we did not run away.
Following an introductory clause or dependent clause at the beginning of a sentence
Dependent clauses are descriptive phrases that cannot exist as separate sentences. When they precede the main part of the sentence, they are set off by a comma (as in this sentence). Consider these examples:
- Because of the high radiation levels, power plant workers were evacuated immediately.
Commas can also follow brief introductory phrases to prevent confusion for the reader.
- In total, twelve different proteins make up this complex.
There are other uses for commas, but we hope that this tip has helped to clear up some of the common uses for the comma. If you have questions, please view the rest of our series on commas or contact us. Best of luck with your research and publication!